ISSN: 2375-3935
American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition  
Manuscript Information
Lycosome Formulation of Dark Chocolate Increases Absorption Cocoa Catechins and Augments Their Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties
American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition
Vol.3 , No. 3, Publication Date: Jun. 29, 2016, Page: 37-44
2188 Views Since June 29, 2016, 691 Downloads Since Jun. 29, 2016

Ivan M. Petyaev, Lycotec Ltd, Granta Park Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom.


Dmitry Pristenskiy, Lycotec Ltd, Granta Park Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom.


Tatyana Bandaletova, DiagNodus Ltd, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom.


Natalia E. Chalyk, Institute of Cardiology, Chernyshevskogo Str, Saratov, Russia.


Victor Klochkov, Institute of Cardiology, Chernyshevskogo Str, Saratov, Russia.


Nigel H. Kyle, Lycotec Ltd, Granta Park Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom.


Despite of numerous health effects a medicinal use of dark chocolate (DC) is complicated and poorly reproducible due to limited intestinal absorption and low bioavailability of chocolate bioactives. Cocoa polyphenols have low intestinal absorption rate which translates into low bioavailability. The effect of newly developed (Lycotec Ltd, Cambridge, United Kingdom) lycosome formulation of DC on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cocoa bioactives has been studied in 15 clinically healthy Caucasian volunteers (7 men and 8 women, aged from 23 to 65 years) clinically healthy volunteers were enrolled for the double-blind cross-over trial. Coco-Lycosome chocolate was compared with traditional dark chocolate. Pharmacokinetics and biochemical parameters were assessed during the first three hours following ingestion DC specimens. It was shown that implementation of Coco-Lycosome technology increases bioavailability of chocolate catechins without affecting the level of absorption of theobromine or caffeine. It was found that lycopene could provide a level of protection to catechins in the chocolate matrix which could result in an increase in their bioavailability of up to 10 – 20 fold. The variation in this increase among participants was thought to be related to their individual metabolic limitations in processing ingested catechins. Theobromine and caffeine levels in serum were not affected. The elevated level of catechins in blood after consumption of Coco-Lycosome chocolate was accompanied by augmentation of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Therefore incorporation of lycopene in the DC matrix and subsequent formation of Coco-lycosomes increases the bioavailability of chocolate catechins and has enhanced anti-inflammatory effect. The possible benefits of this technology, which could help to create more potent catechin-rich chocolate products, are discussed in this paper.


Chocolate Catechins, Lycopene, Lycosome, Inflammation, Pharmacokinetics


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