ISSN: 2375-379X
Health Sciences Research  
Manuscript Information
Diabetes and the Nutrition and Diets for Its Prevention and Treatment: A Systematic Review and Dietetic Perspective
Health Sciences Research
Vol.6 , No. 1, Publication Date: Feb. 4, 2020, Page: 5-19
6166 Views Since February 3, 2020, 1006 Downloads Since Feb. 3, 2020

Chinaza Godswill Awuchi, Department of Physical Sciences, Kampala International University, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Nigeria.


Chinelo Kate Echeta, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Nigeria.


Victory Somtochukwu Igwe, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Nigeria.


The systematic review widely focused on diabetes and the developments in nutrition and diets required to prevent or control all types of diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar level over prolonged period. If left untreated, diabetes causes many health complications. Acute complications can include hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, diabetic ketoacidosis, or even death. Serious long-term health complications include chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the eyes, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Diabetes occurs due to either the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin, or the body cells improperly responding to the insulin produced. Type 1, Type 2, and the Gestational diabetes are the three major types of diabetes mellitus, although there is a collection of other specific types. The Type 1 diabetes results from the failure of pancreas to produce enough insulin due to the loss of beta cells caused by an autoimmune response. Type 2 diabetes begins with the insulin resistance, a condition in which the cells fail to properly respond to insulin. As the disease keeps progressing, a lack of insulin may develop. A combination of insufficient exercise and excessive body weight is the most common cause. Gestational diabetes is third major form, and occurs when a pregnant woman without previous history of diabetes develops high blood sugar levels. Adequate dieting, with good nutrition and regular exercise are very important in preventing or controlling diabetes. Prevention and treatment of diabetes involve maintaining healthy diet, regular physical exercise, normal body weight, and also avoiding use of tobacco. Maintaining a healthy diet, low-fat diet, low-calorie diet, paleolithic diet, very low carbohydrate diet, raw foodism, and/or ketogenic diet can help prevent or manage diabetes.


Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Causes, Diabetes Prevention, Nutrition and Diets for Diabetes Prevention, Nutrition and Diets for Diabetes Control


WHO (2013). "Diabetes Fact sheet N°312". WHO. October 2013.


International Diabetes Federation (2017). IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation.


Shoback DG, and Gardner D (2011). "Chapter 17". Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-162243-1.


Norman A and Henry H (2015). Hormones. Elsevier. pp. 136–137. ISBN 9780123694447.


Rippe RS and Irwin JM (2010). Manual of intensive care medicine (5th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 549. ISBN 978-0-7817-9992-8.


Cash, J (2014). Family Practice Guidelines (3rd ed.). Springer. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-8261-6875-7.


Awuchi, C. G. (2017). Sugar Alcohols: Chemistry, Production, Health Concerns and Nutritional Importance of Mannitol, Sorbitol, Xylitol, and Erythritol. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 3 (2); 31 – 66. ISSN: 2488-9849.


Awuchi, Chinaza Godswill and Echeta, Kate Chinelo (2019). Current Developments in Sugar Alcohols: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health Concerns of Sorbitol, Xylitol, Glycerol, Arabitol, Inositol, Maltitol, and Lactitol. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5 (11); 1 – 33. ISSN: 2488-9849.


Shi Y and Hu FB (2014). "The global implications of diabetes and cancer". Lancet. 383 (9933): 1947–48. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736 (14) 60886-2.


CDC (2019). Deaths and Cost | Data & Statistics | Diabetes | CDC". 20 February 2019.


Cooke DW and Plotnick L (2008). "Type 1 diabetes mellitus in pediatrics". Pediatrics in Review. 29 (11): 374–84, quiz 385. doi: 10.1542/pir.29-11-374.


Rockefeller, J. D. (2015). Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Prevention. ISBN 978-1-5146-0305-5. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.


Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, and Fisher JN (2009). "Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes". Diabetes Care. 32 (7): 1335–43. doi: 10.2337/dc09-9032.


Kenny C (2014). "When hypoglycemia is not obvious: diagnosing & treating under-recognized & undisclosed hypoglycemia". The Primary Care Diabetes, vol 8 (1): 3–11. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2013.9.002.


O'Gara PT, Kushner GF, Ascheim DD, Casey ED, Chung MK, de Lemos AJ, Ettinger SM, Fang CJ, Fesmire FM, Franklin AB, Granger CB, Krumholz MH, Linderbaum JA, Morrow AD, Newby LK, Ornato PJ, Ou N, Radford JM, Tamis-Holland EJ, Tommaso CL, Tracy MC, Woo YJ, Zhao XD, Anderson JL, Jacobs KA, Halperin JL, Albert MN, Brindis RG, Creager AM, DeMets D, Guyton AR, Hochman JS, Kovacs JR, Kushner FG, Ohman ME, Stevenson WG, and Yancy CW (2013). "2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: report of American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Hearts Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 127 (4): e362–425. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182742cf6.


World Health Organization (2014). Diabetes Programme". WHO.


Yang Y, Hu X, Zhang Q, and Zou R (2016). "Diabetes mellitus & risk of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis". Age and Ageing. 45 (6): 761–67. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afw140.


Tuomi T, Santoro N, S Caprio, Cai M, J Weng, and Groop L (2014). "The many faces of diabetes: disease with increasing heterogeneity". Lancet. 383 (9922): 1084–1094. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736 (13) 62219-9.


Rother KI (2007). "Diabetes treatment--bridging the divide". The New England Journal of Medicine. 356 (15): 1499–1501. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp078030.


Petzold A, Solimena M, and Knoch KP (2015). Mechanisms of the Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated With the Viral Infection". Current Diabetes Reports (Review). 15 (10): 73. doi: 10.1007/s11892-015-0654-x.


Butalia S, Kaplan GG, Khokhar B, and Rabi DM (2016). "Environmental Risk Factors & Type 1 Diabetes: Past, Present, & Future". Canadian J of Diabetes. 40 (6): 586–593. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2016.5.002.


Awuchi, Chinaza Godswill (2019a). Medicinal Plants: the Medical, Food, and Nutritional Biochemistry and Uses. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5 (11); 220 – 241. ISSN: 2488-9849.


Serena G, Camhi S, C Sturgeon, Yan S, and Fasano A (2015). "The Role of Gluten in Celiac Disease & Type 1 Diabetes". Nutrients. 7 (9): 7143–62. doi: 10.3390/nu7095329.


Laugesen E, Østergaard JA, and Leslie RD (2015). Latent autoimmune diabetes of adult: current knowledge & uncertainty. Diabetic Medicine. 32 (7): 843–52. doi: 10.1111/dme.12700.


American Diabetes Association (2017). "2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes". Diabetes Care. 40 (Suppl 1): S11–S24. doi: 10.2337/dc17-S005.


Carris NW, Magness RR, and Labovitz AJ (2019). "Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus in the Patients With Prediabetes". The American J of Cardiology. 123 (3): 507–12. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.10.32.


Risérus U, Willett WC, and Hu FB (J2009). "Dietary fats & prevention of type 2 diabetes". The Progress in Lipid Research, volume 48 (1): p 44–51. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2008.10.02.


Malik VS, Popkin MB, Bray GA, Després PJ, and Hu FB (2010). "Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes, & cardiovascular disease risk". Circulation. 121 (11): 1356–64. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.876185.


Lee IM, Shiroma JE, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair NS, and Katzmarzyk TP (2012). "Effect of physical inactivity on the major non-communicable diseases worldwide: analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy". Lancet. 380 (9838): 219–229. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736 (12) 61031-9.


National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases (2019). "Managing & Treating Gestational Diabetes | NIDDK". National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive and Kidney Diseases.


National Collaborating Centre for Women's && Children's Health (2015). "Intrapartum care". Diabetes in Pregnancy: the management of diabetes & its complications from preconception to postnatal period. National Institute for Health & Care Excellence (UK).


National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases (2017). "Monogenic Forms of Diabetes". The National institute of the diabetes, the digestive and kidney diseases. US NIH.


Thanabalasingham G, and Owen KR (2011). "Diagnosis and management of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)". BMJ. 343 (oct19 3): d6044. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d6044.


WHO (1999). "Definition, Diagnosis & Classification of Diabetes Mellitus & its Complications". World Health Organization. 1999.


Barrett KE, et al. (2012). Ganong's review of medical physiology (24th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-178003-2.


Murray RK, et al. (2012). Harper's illustrated biochemistry (29th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-176576-3.


Diabetes Care (2010). Diabetes Care. 33: S3. 2009. doi: 10.2337/dc10-S003.


Saydah HS, Miret M, Sung J, Varas C, D Gause, and Brancati FL (2001). "Postchallenge hyperglycemia & mortality in national sample of U.S. adults". Diabetes Care. 24 (8): 1397–1402. doi: 10.2337/diacare.24.8.1397.


Santaguida LP, Balion C, Hunt D, K Morrison, Gerstein H, Raina P, Booker L, and Yazdi H (2008). "Diagnosis, Prognosis, & Treatment of Impaired Glucose Tolerance & Impaired Fasting Glucose". The Summary of the Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 128. The Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality.


Selvin E, Steffes WM, Zhu H, Matsushita K, L Wagenknecht, Pankow J, Coresh J, and Brancati FL (2010). "Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, & cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic adults". The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (9): 800–11. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0908359.


Kyu HH, Bachman FV, Alexander LT, Mumford EJ, Afshin A, Estep K, Veerman LJ, Delwiche K, Iannarone ML, Moyer LM, Cercy K, Vos T, Murray JC, and Forouzanfar MH (2016). "Physical activity & risks of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, & ischemic stroke events: systematic review & dose-response meta-analysis for Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". The BMJ. 354: i3857. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i3857.


Harvard School of Public Health (2012). "The Nutrition Source". Harvard School of Public Health. 2012-09-18.


Willi C, Bodenmann P, Ghali AW, Faris PD, and Cornuz J (2007). "Active smoking & the risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review & meta-analysis". JAMA. 298 (22): 2654–2664. doi: 10.1001/jama.298.22.2654.


Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund YJ, Genuth SM, Lachin MJ, Orchard TJ, Raskin P, and Zinman B (2005). "Intensive diabetes treatment & cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes". The New England Journal of Medicine. 353 (25): 2643–53. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa052187.


Qaseem A, Wilt JT, Kansagara D, Horwitch C, Barry JM, and Forciea AM (2018). "Hemoglobin A1c Targets for the Glycemic Control With the Pharmacologic Therapy for Nonpregnant Adults With the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Guidance Statement Update From American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Med. 168 (8): 569–576. doi: 10.7326/M17-0939.


Cavanagh PR (2004). "Therapeutic footwear for people with diabetes". Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 20 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1): S51–55. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.435.


Haw JS, Galaviz KI, Straus NA, Kowalski AJ, Magee MJ, Weber MB, Wei J, Narayan KM, and Ali MK (2017). "Long-term Sustainability of the Diabetes Prevention Approaches: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". JAMA Internal Medicine. 177 (12): 1808–17. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.6040.


Mottalib A, Kasetty M, Mar YJ, Elseaidy T, Ashrafzadeh S, and Hamdy O (2017). "Weight Management in Patients with the Type 1 Diabetes & Obesity". Current Diabetes Reports. Vol 17 (10): p 92. doi: 10.1007/s11892-017-0918-8.


American Diabetes Association (2019). "5. Lifestyle Management: the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2019". The Diabetes Care. 42 (Suppl 1): S46–S60. doi: 10.2337/dc19-S005.


Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner DC, Garvey WT, Lau HK, MacLeod J, et al. (2019). "Nutrition Therapy for the Adults with Diabetes or Prediabetes: Consensus Report". Diabetes Care (the Professional society guidelines). Vol 42 (5): 731–54. doi: 10.2337/dci19-0014.


Emadian A, Andrews RC, England YC, Wallace V, and Thompson JL (2015). "The effect of macronutrients on the glycaemic control: a systematic review of the dietary randomized controlled trials in overweight & obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups". The British Journal of Nutrition. 114 (10): 1656–66. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515003475.


Rosberger DF (2013). "Diabetic retinopathy: current concepts and emerging therapy". Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 42 (4): 721–745. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2013.8.001.


MacIsaac RJ, Jerums G, and Ekinci EI (2018). "Glycemic Control as the Primary Prevention for Diabetic Kidney Disease". The Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease. Vol 25 (2): p 141–48. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2017.11.03.


Pozzilli P, Strollo R, and Bonora E (2014). "One size does not fit all the glycemic targets for type 2 diabetes". J of Diabetes Investigation. Vol 5 (2): 134–141. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12206.


Krentz AJ and Bailey JC (2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: the current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. Vol 65 (3): 385–411. doi: 10.2165/00003495-200565030-00005.


Arguedas JA, Perez MI, and Wright JM (2009). Arguedas AJ (ed.). "Treatment blood pressure targets for hypertension". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD004349. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004349.pub2.


Brunström M and Carlberg B (2016). "Effect of antihypertensive treatment at the different blood pressure levels in the patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review & meta-analyses". BMJ. 352: i717. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i717.


Cheng J, Zhang W, X Zhang, Han F, X Li, He X, Q Li, and J Chen (2014). Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors & the angiotensin II receptor blockers on the all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, & cardiovascular events in the patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine. 174 (5): 773–85. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.348.


Schulman AP, del Genio F, N Sinha, and Rubino F (2009). Metabolic surgery for the treatment of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrine Practice. 15 (6): 624–31. doi: 10.4158/EP09170.RAR.


Colucci, RA (2011). "Bariatric surgery in patients with the type 2 diabetes: a viable option". The Postgraduate Medicine. Vol 123 (1): p 24–33. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2011.01.2242.


Polisena J, Tran K, K Cimon, Hutton B, S McGill, and Palmer K (2009). "Home telehealth for diabetes management: systematic review & meta-analysis". Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 11 (10): 913–930. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.1057.x.


WHO (2016). "Global Report on Diabetes". World Health Organization. 2016.


Gale EA and Gillespie KM (2001). "Diabetes and gender". Diabetologia. 44 (1): 3–15. doi: 10.1007/s001250051573.


Mathers CD and Loncar D (2006). "Projections of global mortality & burden of disease from 2002 – 2030". PLoS Medicine. Vol 3 (11): e442. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442.


Wild S, Roglic G, A Green, Sicree R, and H King (2004). "Global prevalence of diabetes: the estimates for the year 2000 & projections for 2030". Diabetes Care. Vol 27 (5): 1047–53. doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.5.1047.


Theodore H. Tulchinsky and Elena A. Varavikova (2008). The New Public Health, 2nd Edition. New York: Academic Press. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-12-370890-8.


Dubois H and Bankauskaite V (2005). "Type 2 diabetes programmes in Europe". Euro Observer. 7 (2): 5–6.


Washington R. E.; Andrews M. R.; and Mutter L. R. (2013). "Emergency Department Visits for the Adults with Diabetes, 2010". The HCUP Statistical Brief #167. Rockville MD: the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


Maria Rotella C, Pala L, and Mannucci E (2013). "Role of insulin in type 2 diabetes therapy: past, present & future". Int’l J of Endocrinology & Metabolism. 11 (3): 137–144. doi: 10.5812/ijem.7551.


FDA (2016). "Phosphagenics Initiates Trial of Transdermal Insulin Gel".


Lean, Michael J. E. (2015). "Principles of Human Nutrition". Medicine. Vol 43 (2): p 61–65. doi: 10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.11.09.


WHO (2019). Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity & Health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at


Melina, Vesanto; Craig, Winston; and Levin, Susan (2016). "Position of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets". J of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. 116 (12): 1970–80. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.9.025.


USDA & the US Department of Health and Human Services (2015). Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. "Scientific Report of 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee." Washington (DC): the USDA and US Department of Health and Human Services (2015).


Schwartz MW, Seeley RJ, Zeltser MJ, Drewnowski A, Ravussin E, Redman ML, et al. (2017). "Obesity Pathogenesis: Endocrine Society Scientific Statement". Endocr Rev (Scientific statement). Vol 38 (4): 267–96. doi: 10.1210/er.2017-00111.


Makris A and Foster GD (2002). "Dietary Approaches to Treatment of Obesity". Psychiatr Clin North America. 34 (4): 813–827. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2011.8.004.


Awuchi, C. G.; Igwe, V. S.; and Echeta, C. K. (2019). The Functional Properties of Foods and Flours. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5 (11): 139 – 160. ISSN: 2488-9849.


Awuchi, C. G. (2019b). Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Different Grain Flour Composites for Industrial Applications. International Journal of Food Sciences, v. 2, n. 1, p. 43 - 64, nov. 2019. ISSN 2520-4637.


Food & nutrition board, institute of medicine of national academies (2005). The dietary reference intake for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, & amino acids (macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 799.


Lichtenstein AH and Van Horn L (1998). "Very low fat diets". Circulation. 98 (9): 935 939. doi: 10.1161/1.cir.98.9.935.


Tarantino, G; Citro, V; Finelli, C (2015). "Hype or reality: should patients with metabolic syndrome-related NAFLD be on the Hunter-Gatherer (Paleo) diet to decrease morbidity?". Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases. 24 (3): 359–68. doi: 10.15403/jgld.2014.1121.243.gta.


Zuk M (2013). Paleofantasy: What the Evolution Really Tells Us about the Sex, Diet, & How We Live. W. W. Norton and Co. ISBN 978-0-393-08137-4.


Katz DL and Meller S (2014). "Can we say what diet is the best for health?". Annual Review of Public Health. Vol 35: 83–103. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351.


Manheimer, Eric W; van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; and Pijl, Hanno (2015). "Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 102 (4): 922–32. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.113613.


Hou JK, Lee D, and Lewis J (2014). "Diet & inflammatory bowel disease: a review of patient-targeted recommendations". The Clinical Gastroenterology & Hepatology (Review). 12 (10): p 1592–600. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.09.063.


Seckold R, E Fisher, de Bock M, King RB, and CE Smart (2018). "The ups & downs of low-carbohydrate diets in management of Type 1 diabetes: review of clinical outcomes". Diabet. Med. (Review). Vol 36 (3): p 326–334. doi: 10.1111/dme.13845.


Last AR and Wilson SA (2006). "Low-carbohydrate diets". American Family Physician. 73 (11): 1942–8.


Thom, G and Lean, M (2017). "Is There Optimal Diet for Weight Management & Metabolic Health?". Gastroenterology (Review). 152 (7): p 1739–1751. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.1.056.


British Dietetic Association (2017). Top five worst celebrity diets to avoid in 2018. British Dietetic Association. 7 December 2017.


Meng Y, Bai H, S Wang, Li Z, Wang Q, and Chen L (2017). The efficacy of low carbohydrate diet for the type 2 diabetes mellitus management: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". The Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice. 131: p 124–131. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.07.06.


van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z, Kuijpers T, and Pijl H (2018). The effects of low-carbohydrate- compared with the low-fat-diet interventions on the metabolic control in people with the type 2 diabetes: systematic review including GRADE assessments". American J of Clinical Nutrition. 108 (2): 300–331. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy096.


Davies MJ, D'Alessio AD, Fradkin J, Kernan NW, Mathieu C, G Mingrone, et al. (2018). "Management of Hyperglycemia in the Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) ". Diabetes Care. 41 (12): 2669–2701. doi: 10.2337/dci18-0033.


Brouns F (2018). "Overweight & diabetes prevention: is low-carbohydrate-high-fat diet recommendable?". European Journal of Nutrition (Review). 57 (4): p 1301–1312. doi: 10.1007/s00394-18-1636-y.


Suyoto PTS (2018). "Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on markers of the renal function in the patients with type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis". The Diabetes Metab Res Rev (Meta-analysis). Vol 34 (7): e3032. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3032.


American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee, ADAPPC (2019). "Professional Practice Committee: the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2019". Diabetes Care. 42 (Supplement 1): s46–s60. doi: 10.2337/dc19-S005.


Bonet, Anna (2018). "Are crash diets ever good idea for weight loss?". Netdoctor.


Thorell, A; MacCormick, DA; Awad, S; Reynolds, N; D Roulin; Demartines, N; M Vignaud; Alvarez, A; Singh, MP; and Lobo, ND (2016). "Guidelines for Perioperative Care in the Bariatric Surgery: the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society Recommendations". World J of Surgery (Professional society guidelines). Vol 40 (9): 2065–2083. doi: 10.1007/s00268-16-3492-3.


Holderbaum, M; Casagrande, DS; Sussenbach, S; and Buss, C (2018). "Effects of very low calorie diet on liver size & weight loss in preoperative period of bariatric surgery: systematic review". Surgery for Obesity & Related Diseases (Systematic review). 14 (2): 237–44. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2017.9.531.


Sours HE, Frattali VP, Brand DC, Feldman RA, Forbes LA, Swanson RC, and Paris LA (1981). "Sudden death associated with the very low calorie weight reduction regimens". American J of Clinical Nutr. 34 (4): 453–461. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/34.4.453.


Wong, Cathy (2007). "Raw Food Diet".


Fitzgerald M (2014). Diet Cults: Surprising Fallacy at Core of Nutrition Fads & a Guide to Healthy Eating for Rest of US. The Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-60598-560-2.


Martin-McGill KJ, Jackson FC, Bresnahan R, Levy GR, and Cooper NP (2018). Ketogenic diets for the drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review. 2018 Nov 7; 11: CD001903. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001903.pub4.


Gano LB, Patel M, and Rho JM (2014). Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases. J Lipid Res. 2014 Nov; 55 (11): 2211-28. doi: 10.1194/jlr.R048975.

  Join Us
  Join as Reviewer
  Join Editorial Board