ISSN: 2375-379X
Health Sciences Research  
Manuscript Information
Community and Individual Level Factors Influencing Modern Contraceptive Use among Married Women in Nigeria
Health Sciences Research
Vol.5 , No. 3, Publication Date: Nov. 27, 2018, Page: 59-68
1433 Views Since November 27, 2018, 241 Downloads Since Nov. 27, 2018

Adegoke Omolola Simiat, Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.


The prevalence of contraceptive use is low in Nigeria with wide variations across the different geopolitical zones. Though researchers have devoted considerable attention to the impact of individual-level factors on contraceptive use, less is known about how community characteristics affect contraceptive use in married women. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of community level variables on family planning use among Nigerian married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years). The study is based on data collected from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Random effects multilevel logistic regression analyses of 23479 married women of reproductive age nested within 888 clusters was carried out to assess the role of selected individual (socio demographic and other family planning related factors) and community level factors (childbearing, wealth index, education, high parity, exposure to family planning messages) in the use of modern contraceptives. The regression model was fitted using the GLLAMM command in STATA-10. Level of significance was at 5%. Contraceptive use was lowest in communities which were poor, have low level of education and those who felt having more than four children was ideal. Overall, the results of this study suggest that contextual factors play an important role in contraceptive use. More attention needs to be paid particularly to contextual factors while formulating family planning policies in Nigeria so as to improve modern contraceptive use.


Contraceptive Use, Individual-Level Effect, Community-Level Effect, Multilevel Modeling, Nigeria


National Population Commission. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2008). Calverton, MD: National Population Commission and ORC Marco.


WHO 2011 |Family planning (Accessed online on 28th August 2012).


Moreland and Talbird, 2006. Achieving the millennium development goals: the contribution of fulfilling the unmet need for family planning. Washington, DC: USAID.


National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria]. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2013). NPC, Abuja: 2014.


Oyedokun, A. O. (2004) Domestic violence and contraceptive use in Ife-North Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis submitted to the department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 169p.


Adeleye, O. A., and Okonkwo C. A., (2010) Barriers and knowledge of benefit increasing family planning methods among women attending antenatal clinics in a southern Nigeria community southern Nigeria. Asian J. M ed. Sci.; 2 (4): 190-194.


Adebowale A. S, Gbadebo B and Afolabi F. R. Wealth index, empowerment and modern contraceptive use among married women in Nigeria; are they interrelated? J Public Health. 2016; 24: 415.


Ejembi C. L, Dahiru and Aliyu A. A, “Contextual factors influencing modern contraceptive use in Nigeria”. A DHS working paper USAID, NO. 120, 2015.


Johnson O. E and Ekong I. E. Knowledge attitude and practice of family planning among women in rural communities in Southern Nigeria. Br J Med Med Res, 2016: 12 (2): 1-8.


Pathfinder 2004. Reproductive health issue in Nigeria: the Islamic perspective. Pathfinder International, Nigeria/Policy Project. 13-16.


Kaggwa, E. B., Diop, N., and Storey, J. D., (2008) The role of individual and community normative factors: a multilevel analysis of contraceptive use among women in union in Mali. International Family Planning Perspective; 34: 79–88.


Amin, S., Basu, A. M., and Stephenson, R., (2002) Spatial variation in contraceptive use in Bangladesh: Looking beyond the borders. Demography 39 (2): 251-267.


Stephenson, R., Baschieri, A., Clements, S., Hennink, M., and Madise, N., (2007) Contextual influences on modern contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa. American Journal of Public Health, 97 (7): 1233-1240.


Pokorny, S. B., Jason L. A., and Schoeny, M. E., (2004) Current smoking among adolescents: assessing school based contextual norms. Tobacco control BMJ 13: 301-307.


Rabe-HeskethS. And Skrondal A., (2005) Multilevel and Longitudinal Modelling using Stata. Vol 4, Stata Corp L. Texas, Stata Press Publication. College Station. TX. p. 116.


Oldenburg, B., and Parcel, G. S., Diffusion of innovations, in: Glanz K, Rimer BK and Lewis FM, eds, health behavior and health education theory research and practice third edition sans fransisco, CA, USA, Jossey based publisher 2002, pp 312-334.


Abebe, G., and Nigatu R., (2011) Family planning service utilization in Ethiopia. A population based study. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, Vol. 4 (6), pp. 355-363.


Viswanathan, K., Hansen, P., Rahman, M., Steinhard, L., (2011) Can community health workers increase coverage coverage of reproductive health services? Journal of epidemiology and community health. Pp 9-11.

  Join Us
  Join as Reviewer
  Join Editorial Board