American Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences  
Manuscript Information
 
 
Infiltrating to Control Floods - Suitability of Infiltration Based Systems in Urban Sub-Sahara Africa
American Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Vol.3 , No. 1, Publication Date: Feb. 24, 2020, Page: 1-12
157 Views Since February 23, 2020, 40 Downloads Since Feb. 23, 2020
 
 
Authors
 
[1]    

Joel Bernard Asiedu, Department of Crop Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

 
Abstract
 

The research studies infiltration characteristics of soils of an urban Sub-Sahara African metropolis, specifically Accra, Ghana. It investigates the infiltration characteristics of the soils of the research area for a preliminary assessment of their suitability for infiltration based interventions to stormwater management. Data was collected from 91 locations on soil infiltration characteristics for hydraulic conductivity under near saturated conditions using Double Ring Infiltrometer, Inverse Auger Hole, and Turf Tec Infiltrometers and under unsaturated conditions using a MiniDisk Infiltrometer. The different infiltrometers were used on seven different soil groups. Unsaturated Hydraulic conductivity values had a median of 219.5 mm/h. Near saturated hydraulic conductivity for Double Ring was 42 mm/h, Inverse Auger Hole (645.2 mm/h) with Turf Tec being 140 mm/h. The results showed significant spatial variation (p=0.001, p=0.004) between the methods and soil types for the first thirteen locations and does not support homogenous hydraulic conductivity within soil groups. Soils had moderate hydraulic conductivity seen in drain times for Korle consociation (23.3 h) and Oyarifa-Mamfe complex (55.7 h) but others like Nyigbenya-Haacho (77.6 h), Fete-Bediesi (407.1 h), and Fete consociation (1282 h) had higher drain time. Near saturated hydraulic conductivity values were used to build an initial profile for the soil groups where Korle consociation and Damfa-Dome complex were classed under HSG A, Nyigbenya-Haacho complex as HSG C and the rest as HSG B. Soils like the Fete-Bediesi complex with relatively high drain time could be engineered to predefined moderately high hydraulic conductivity to ensure moderate infiltration characteristics for infiltration based stormwater management systems.


Keywords
 

Infiltrometer, Infiltration Rate, Hydraulic Conductivity, Drain Time, Soils


Reference
 
[01]    

Bhattacharya-Mis, N. a. L., J., A Review of the Flood Risk situation in African growing Cities in Urban Flood Risk management approaches to enhance Resilience of Commuities 2011, UFRIM: Graz, Austria.

[02]    

Jha, A. K. B., Robin and Lamond, Jessica Cities and Flooding: A guide to integrated urban flood risk management for the 21st century, 2012, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Washington DC.

[03]    

Asumadu-Sarkodie, S. O., A Phebe and Jayaweera, M. P. C. Herath, Flood risk management in Ghana: A case study in Accra Advances in Applied Science Research, 2015. 6 (4): p. 196-201.

[04]    

Steiner, F., The Application of Ecological knowledge requires a pursuit of wisdom Landscape and Urban Planning, 2016. 155 (2016).

[05]    

UNEP, African Environment Outlook 2: Our Environment, our Wealth, C. J. a. S. Mohamed-Katerere, Mayar Editor 2006, United Nations Environment Programme: Nairobi, Kenya.

[06]    

Aboagye, D., The Political Ecology of Environmental Hazards in Accra, Ghana. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2012. 2 (10): p. 158-172.

[07]    

Ouikotan, R. B. v. d. K., J.; Mynett, A. and Afouda, A. Gaps and Challenges of Flood risk Management in West African coastal Cities. in XVI World Water Congress. International Water Resources Association. 2017. Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

[08]    

Okyere, C. Y. Y., Y.; Gilgenbach, D., The prohlem of annual occurences of floods in Accra: An integration of Hydrological, Economic and Political perspectives Theoritical and Emprircal Researches in Urban Management, 2013. 8 (2).

[09]    

Burns, M. J. F., Tim D.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Ladson, Anthony R. and Hatt, Belinda E, Hydrologic shortcoming of conventional urban stormwater management and opportunities for reform. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2012. 105 (3): p. 230-240.

[10]    

Warren, M. P., T. Younos, and J. Randolph, eds. Implementing Watershed-Based Green infrastructure for Stormwater management: Case Study in Blacksburg, Virginia. Virginia Water Resources Research Center Special Report. 2009, Virginia Water Resources Reseach Center, Blacksburg: Virginia polytechnic Institue and State University Blacksburg, Virginia.

[11]    

Prominski, M. S., Antje; Stimberg, Daniel; Voermanek, Hinnerk and Zeller, Susanne River Space Design: Planning strategies, Methods and Projects for Urban rivers. 2012, Birkhauser, Basel.

[12]    

Morison, J. P. a. B., R. Rebekah, Understanding the Nature of Public and Local Commitments to Water Sensitive Urban Design. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2011. 99 (2011): p. 83-92.

[13]    

Brown, R. R. a. C., J. M, Transition to Water Sensitive Urban Design: The Story of Melbourne, Australia, in Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration 2007, Monash University, Australia: Monash University.

[14]    

LSRCA, LSRCA Technical Guidlines for Stormwater management Submissions, 2016, Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA).

[15]    

Parkinson, J. a. M. O., Urban Storm Water Management in Developing Countries. 2015, London, UK: IWA Publishing.

[16]    

Urbonas, B., Assessment of Stormwater Best management Practice Effectiveness, in Innovative Urban Wet-Weather flow management Systems, J. P. H. a. R. P. R. Field, Editor. 2000, Technomic Publishing Company: Lancaster, Michigan.

[17]    

Strom, S. N., Kurt and Woland, Jake, Site Engineering for Landscape Architects. 5 ed. 2009, New Jersey: JohnWiley & Sons.

[18]    

CDOT, Surface water Landscapes (Draft), in CDOT Draianage Design Manual. 2004, Colorado Department of Transport (CDOT).

[19]    

Government, H. C., Environmental Site Design, 2015, Harford County Government: Harford County, Maryland USA.

[20]    

Davis, P. A. H., F. William; Traver, G. Robert and Clar, Michael, Bioretention Technology: Overview of Current Practices and Future Needs. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2009. 135: p. 109-117.

[21]    

Martin-Mikle, J. C. d. B., M Kirsten; Julian, P Jason; and Mayer, M Paul, Identifying priority sites for Low Impact Development (LID) in a Mixed-Use Watershed. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2015. 140: p. 29-41.

[22]    

Motloch, J. L., Introduction to Landscape Design. 2001, Toronto: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

[23]    

USDA, Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds, in TR-551986: USA.

[24]    

EPA-USA, Considerations in the Design of Treatment Best Management Practices (BMPs) to Improve Water Quality, 2002, EPA USA: EPA USA, Cincinnati OH.

[25]    

Stibinger, J., Examples of determining the Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils: Theory and Applications of Selected Basic Methods, ed. M. Nerunda. 2014: J. E. Purkyne University in Usti n. Labem, Faculty of the Environment.

[26]    

Le Coustumer, S. F., Tim D; Deletic, Ana; Potter Matthew Hydraulic Performance of Biofilter Systems for Stormwater Management; Lessons from a Field Study. 2008.

[27]    

Fatehnia, M. T., K. and Ye, M., Estimation of Saturated Hydrauilic Conductivity from Double-ring Infitrometer measurements. European Journal of Soil Science, 2016. 67: p. 135-147.

[28]    

Ingelmo, F. M., Jose M.; de Paz, Jose Miguel and Visconti, Fernando Soil Saturated Hydraulic conductivity Assessment from Expert evaluation of field characteristics using an Ordered Logistic Regression model. Soil and Tillage Research, 2011. 115-116 (October-November): p. 27-38.

[29]    

Ravi, V. a. W., R Joseph, Estimation of Infiltration rate in the Vadose Zone: Compilation of simple Mathematical Models, 1998, United States Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D. C.

[30]    

Oosterbaan, R. J. a. N., H. J., Determining the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity, in Drainage Principles and Applications., H. P. Ritzema, Editor. 1994, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement: Wageningen, The Netherlands.

[31]    

Youngs, E. G., Estimating Hydraulic conductivity values from Ring Infiltrometer measurements. Journal of Soil Science, 1987. 38: p. 623-632.

[32]    

ASTM, Standard Test Method for Infiltration Rate of Soils in Field using Double-Ring Infiltrometer, in Standard D3385-092009, American Society of Testing and Materials ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA.

[33]    

Eijkelkamp, Double Ring Infiltrometer: Operating Instructions, in Eijkelkamp E. A. Equipment, Editor 2015, Royal Eijkelkamp Company.

[34]    

Walsh, E. a. M., K. P., The Influence of Measurement Methodology on Soil Infiltration Rate. International Journal of Soil Science, 2012. 7 (4): p. 168-176.

[35]    

Bouwer, H., Artificial Recharge of Groundwater: Hydrogeology and Engineering. Hydrogeology Journal, 2002. 10: p. 121-142.

[36]    

Oppong-Anane, K., Country Pasture Forage Resource Profile - Ghana, 2006, Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome.

[37]    

Khatri, K. B. S., Peter Van der and Vairavamoorthy, Kala, Climate Change: Accra-Ghana, in Briefing note Accra 2007, UNESCO-IHE: The Netherlands. p. 7.

[38]    

van Hoorn, J. W. Determining Hydraulic Conductivity with the Inversed Auger Hole and Infiltrometer Methods. in Proceedings of the International Drainage Workshop 1979. Wageningen, The Netherlands: ILRI Publication.

[39]    

Leiveci, K. S. K., Gholam Abbas and Damough Noorali, Measuring Infiltration rate and Hydraulic conductivity in dry well in a thin overburden. JGeope, 2016. 6 (1).

[40]    

Verbist, K. M. J. C., W. M.; Torf, S. and Gabriels, D, Comparing Methods to Determine Hydraulic Conductivities on Stony Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2013. 77: p. 25-42.

[41]    

Amirataee, B. a. B., Sina, Comparing Hydraulic conductivity through both Inverted Auger Hole and Constant Head methods, in CSBE/SCGAB 2008 Annual Conference 2008: Vancouver, British Columbia.

[42]    

Devices, D., Mini Disk Infiltrometer, I. Decagon Devices, Editor 2014, Decagon Devices, Inc.

[43]    

Blansett, K., Design and Construction of Dry Wells in Pennsylvania, 2016, Pennsylvania Housing Research Center: Pennsylvania State College of Engineering, Pennsylvania USA.

[44]    

Diamond, J. a. S., T. Infiltration Rate Assessment of some Major Soils. in AgriculturalResearch Forum, Dublin. 1998. Dublin.

[45]    

United States Department of Agriculture, N. R. C. S., Hydrologic Soil Groups, in National Engineering Handbook - Part 630 Hydrology. 2009, United States Department of Agriculture.

[46]    

Mohanty, B. P. K., R. S. and Everts, C. J., Comparism of Saturated Hydraulic conductivity measurement Methods for a Glacial-Till Soil. Soil Science Society of America, 1994. 58 (3): p. 672-677.

[47]    

Chow, V. T. M., R. David and Mays, W. Larry, Applied Hydrology. Civil Engineering Series. 1988, New York: McGraw-Hill International Editions.

[48]    

Ghartey, O. E. D., N. N. Gabriel; Nartey, K. Eric; Adjadeh, A. T. and Lawson, Y. D. Innocent, Assessment of Variability in the Quality of an Acrisol under Different Land use Systems in Ghana. Open Journal of Soil Science, 2012. 2: p. 33-43.

[49]    

Cudworth, G. A. J., Flood Hydrology Manual, B. o. R. United States Department of the Interior, Editor 1989, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation: Denver, Colorado.

[50]    

ISWM, Hydrology, in iSWM Technical Manual, E. a. D. North Central Council of Governments, Editor. 2010, Integrated Storm Water Management (iSWM): Arlingron, Texas.

[51]    

Ingelmo, F. M., M. Jose; de Paz, Jose Miguel; Visconti, Fernando, Soil Saturated hydraulic Conductivity Assessment from Expert Evalaution of Field Characteristics using an Ordered logistic Regression Model. Soil Tillage and Research, 2011. 115: p. 27-38.

[52]    

ESD, Bioretention manual, 2007, Environmental Services Division, Department of Environmental Resources, Prince George's County Maryland.

[53]    

Ogden, L. F. a. W., S. Glenn, Watershed Runoff, Streamflow Generation, and Hydrologoc Flow Regimes, in Handbook of Applied Hydrology, V. P. Singh, Editor. 2017, Mcgraw-Hill Education: New York. p. 49-1-49-11.

[54]    

Jadczyszyn, J. a. N., J., Relation of Saturated Hydraulic conductivity to Soil losses. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 2005. 14 (4): p. 431-435.

[55]    

Mallants, D. J., Diederik; Tseng, Peng-Hsiang; van Genuchten, Th. Martinus, Comparison of three Hydraulic property measurement methods. Journal of Hydrology, 1997. 199: p. 295-318.

[56]    

Obeng, H., Soil CLassification in Ghana, 2000, Center for Policy Analysis (CEPA), Ghana: Accra Ghana. p. 33.

[57]    

Avornyo, V. K. A., T. A. and Amatekpor, J. K., Morphological, Chemical and Physical Properties of Two Pan Soils in the Lower Volta Basin of Ghana. West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology, 2013. 21 (2).

[58]    

Obalum, E. S. B., M. M; Nwite, C. J.; Hermansah,; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Igwe, A. C. and Wakatsuki, Toshiyuki, Soil degredation-Induced decline in Productivity of SUb-Saharan African SOils: The Prospects of Looking Downwards the Low Lands with the Sawah Ecotechnology. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2012.

[59]    

Brammer, H., Soils of Ghana, 1958, Department of Agriculture, Division of Soil and Land-use Survey: Accra-Ghana.

[60]    

Brammer, H., Soils of the Accra Plains, 1967, Soil Research Institute- Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences: Accra Ghana.

[61]    

Senayah, K. J. N., K. Abrefa and Gyansu, Abu Sharon Report on the Soil Resources of Gomoa East District, Central Region-Ghana, 2013a, Soil Research Institute of Center for Scienctific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-Ghana.

[62]    

Adjei-Gyapong, T. a. A., R. D., The interime Ghana Soil classification system and its relation with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources, in Quatorzieme Reunion du Sous-Comite ouest et centre africain de correlation des sols pour lamise en valeur des terres, FAO, Editor. 2002, FAO.

[63]    

Ashiagbor, G. F., Eric K.; Laari, Prosper; Aabeyir, Raymond, Modelling Soil Erosion using RUSLE and GIS tools. International Journal of Remote Sensing and Geoscience (IJRSG), 2013. 2 (4).

[64]    

FAO/IIASA/ISSCAS/JRC, Harmonized World Soil Database, FAO, Editor 2012: Rome Italy and IISA, Laxenburg, Austria.

[65]    

Phillips, J. S., Mark; Joubert, Lorraine and Turenne, James, Method for Determining Hydrologic Soil Group by Site Specific Soil mapping, 2015.

[66]    

Asiedu, J. K., Assessing the Threat of Erosion to Nature -Based Interventions for Storm-water Management and Flood Control in the Greater Accra Metropolotan Area, Ghana. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 2018. 19 (1): p. 1-13.

[67]    

Kazemi, F. B., Simon and Gibbs, Joan, Streetscape Biodiversity and the Role of Bioretention Swales in an Australian Urban Environment. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2011. 101: p. 139-148.

[68]    

Lefevre, G. H., Fate and Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Stormwater Bioretention cells, in Faculty of Graduate School 2012, University of Minnesota, USA: University of Minnesota, USA.

[69]    

Dietz, E. M., Low Impact Development Practices: A Review of Current Research and Refcommendations for Future Directions. Water Air Soil Pollut, 2007. 186 (2007): p. 351-363.

[70]    

Shafique, M., A Review of the Bioretention system for Sustainable storm water management in Urban areas. Materials and Geoenvironment, 2016. 64 (4): p. 227-236.

[71]    

Liu, J. S., J. David; Bell, Cameron and Guan, Yuntao, Review and Research needs of Bioretention used for the Treatment of Urban Stormwater. Water, 2014. 6: p. 1069-1099.

[72]    

Hunt, F. W. a. L., G. William. Bioretention Performance, Design Construction and Maintenance. Urban Waterways 2006 [cited 2017; Available from: http://www.ncstormwater.org/pdfs/bioretention_jan_19_06.pdf.

[73]    

Lim, H. S. a. L., X. X., Sustainable urban Stormwater Management in the Tropics: An Evaluation of Singapore's ABC Water program. Journal of Hydrology, 2016. 538: p. 842-862.

[74]    

NRC, Urban Stormwater Management in the United States, 2009, National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies: Washington DC.

[75]    

Palanisamy, B. a. C., Ting Fong May, Rehabilitation of concrete canals in urban catchments using low impact development techniques. Journal of Hydrology, 2015. 523: p. 309-319.

[76]    

Passeport, E. V., P.; Forshay, J. Kenneth; Harris, L.; Kaushal, S. S.; Kellog, Q. D.; Lazar, J.; Mayer, P. and Stander, K. E., Eocological Engineering Practices for the Redfuction of Excess Nitrogen in Human-Influenced Landscapes: A Guide for Watershed Managers. Environmental Management, 2013. 51: p. 392-413.

[77]    

PWUD, L., Drainage Criteria Manual 2000, City of Lincoln Public Works and Utilities Department (PWUD): Lincoln USA.

[78]    

Dziopak, J. a. S., Daniel, Stormwater Management and Retention in Urban Catchment, in Stormwater Management - Examples from Czech Replublic, Slovakia and Poland, P. H. a. M. Zelenakova, Editor. 2015, Springer: London.





 
  Join Us
 
  Join as Reviewer
 
  Join Editorial Board
 
share:
 
 
Submission
 
 
Membership