American Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences  
Manuscript Information
Temporal Variations of Selected Climatic Parameters in Osogbo, Nigeria for the Period of four Decades (1975–2014)
American Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Vol.2 , No. 1, Publication Date: May 5, 2019, Page: 9-14
202 Views Since May 5, 2019, 102 Downloads Since May 5, 2019

Salami Afeez Alabi, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.


Drastic changes in society such as fast urbanization, globalization, economic changes and the need for more sustainable solutions for spatial problems lead to new urban forms. These have led to changes in the climatic parameters which are most noticeable effects of climate. To study the changes and/or patterns of climatic elements in the study area, the paper examined the temporal variations of some climatic parameters in Osogbo, Nigeria for a period of 40 years (1975-2014). The patterns of climatic parameters in the study area over the four decades were studied for any observable changes. The selected climatic data were collected from the archive of Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Oshodi, Lagos and analysed using Mann-Kendall trend test. The results obtained revealed that there are positive trends in mean annual temperature (minimum and maximum) with Zs statistics (τ/στ) values 2.14 and 2.44 which are outside the limit of +/-1.96. The result also revealed that rainfall amount was statistically significant over the period of 1975-2014 with τ/ στ value 2.07 while relative humidity showed a negative trend and significant decrease with Zs statistics (τ/στ) value -1.48. These changes in temperatures can influence precipitation characteristics and indirectly affect the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs. This study noted that factors responsible for changes in rainfall include fluctuation in evapotranspiration, nature of the surface, air masses and human activities such as construction, felling of trees, and release of pollutants into the air. The study concludes that, if actions are not taken, changes in climatic parameters would pose challenges on socio-economic, health, agriculture, as well as human discomfort in the study area. Therefore, there should be a number of strategies for developing and integrating Green Infrastructure (GI) in human settlement.


Climate, Mann-Kendall, Statistically Significant, Variability, Nigeria


Aguda, A. S., & Adegboyega, S. A. (2013). Evaluation of spatio-temporal dynamics of urban sprawl in Osogbo, Nigeria using Satellite Imagery and GIS Techniques. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 60-73. Retrieved, March 23, 2015, from


Akerlof, K., Maibach, E., Fitzgerald, D., Cedeno, A. Y., & Newman, A. (2013). Do people ‘personally experience’ global warming, and if so how, and does it matter? Global Environmental Change, 23, 81-91.


Akintola, F. O. (1992). Rainfall, urbanization and occurrence of floods. In Perspectives in applied climatology. Lighthouse Publishers. 15.


Anyadike, R. N. C. (1993). Patterns and variations of rainfall over Banju, Gambia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 14 (1), 1-4.


Assela, P., Hailu, B. D., William, V., Chris, Z., & Allan, T. B. (2013). Impacts of urban growth-driven land use change on micro-climate and extreme precipitation- A Sensitivity Study. UNESCO- IHE.


Ayoade, J. O. (2004). Introduction to climatology for the tropics. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.


De Chavez, & Tauli-Corpus (Eds) (2008). Guide to climate change. Retrieved, 26th June, 2015 from


Farmer, G., & Wigley, T. M. (1985). Climatic trends for tropical Africa. A research report for the Overseas Development Administration, 136.


Gerstengarbe, F. W., & Werner, P. C. (1999). Estimation of the Beginning and end of recurrent events within a climate regime. Climate Research, 11, 97-107.


Hulme, M., Dessai, S., Lorenzoni, I., & Nelson, R. D. (2009). Unstable climates: Exploring the statistical and social constructions of ‘normal’ climate. Geoforum, 40, 197-206.


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Working group ii contribution to the IPCC fourth assessment report. Cambridge University Press.


Marry, O. M., & Bernard, T. T. (2011). Temporal variation in air temperature in Makurdi, Nigeria. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Nigerian Meteorological Society. Climate Change Impact: Risks and Opportunities. 171-177.


Moshood, N. T., & Shinichi, O. (2009). Hydrogeochemical assessment of metals contamination in an urban drainage system: A case study of Osogbo Township, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 3, 164-173. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.13021. Retrieved on 10th, November, 2014 from


Mukheiber, P., & Sparks, D. (2005). Climate variability, climate change and water resources strategies from municipalities, University of Cape Town: Report to the Water Research Commission.


National Population Commission, (2006). 2006 Population and housing census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria: Priority TABLES. Volume 1. Abuja: National Population Commission.


Odjugo, P. A. O. (2005). An analysis of rainfall and its implication in Nigeria. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4 (2), 139-145.


Odufuwa B. O., Adedeji O. H., Oladesu J. O., & Bongwa A. (2012). Floods of fury in Nigerian cities. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5 (7).


Oguntoyinbo, J. S. (1982). Climate and mankind. An Inaugural Lecture Delivered on 24 Mar, 1982, University of Ibadan.


Olaniran, O. J. (2002). Rainfall anomaly in Nigeria: A contemporary understanding. An inaugural lecture delivered 25th April, 2002, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.


Olaniran, O., & Summer, G. (1989). A study of climate variability in Nigeria Based on the onset, retreat and length of the rainy season. International Journal of Climatology, 22 (6), 731-742.


Ologunorisa, T. E. (2011). In search of climate justice and equity. 1st Inaugural Lecture Delivered on 19th January, 2011, Osun State University, Okuku Campus, Nigeria. 1-77.


Rahaman, M. A. (1976). Review of the basement geology of Southwestern Nigeria. In Kogbe, C. A. (Ed.), Geology of Nigeria (pp. 41–58). Elizabethan Publishers, Lagos, Nigeria.


Salami, A. A. (2018). Constraints to effective climate change adaptation policies and programmes in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1 (1), 9-14.


Salami, A. A., Olanrewaju, R. M., & Tilakasiri, S. L. (2016). Perception and awareness of climate change in Osogbo Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of World Development Studies, 2 (2), 111-127.


Shepherd, J. M., Pierce, H., & Negri, A. J. (2002). Rainfall modification by major urban areas: Observations from spaceborne rain radar on the TRMM Satellite. Journal of Applied Meteorology 41, 689-701.


Solomon, S. (2007). Glossary. In climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of WG 1 to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, University Press.


Strauss, S., & Orlove, B. S. (2003). Up in the air: The anthropology of weather and climate. In Strauss, S.; Orlove, B. S. (eds) Weather, Climate, Culture. Oxford, Berg Publishers, 3-16.


Ustaoglu, B. (2012). Trend analysis of annual mean temperature data using mann-kedall rank correlation test in catalca – Kocaeli Peninsula, North West of Turkey for the period of 1970 – 2011. IBAC, 2, 276 – 287.


Watkins, R., & Kolokotroni, M. (2012). The London urban heat island upwind vegetation effects on local temperatures. 28th Conference, Opportunities, Limits and Needs towards Environmentally Responsible architecture. Lima.


Yue, S., & Pilon, P. (2004). A comparison of the power of the t test, mann kendall and bootrap tests for trend detection. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 49 (1), 21-37.

  Join Us
  Join as Reviewer
  Join Editorial Board