International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering  
Manuscript Information
 
 
Seasonal Variability of Maize Yield on a Compacted Sandy Loam Soil in a Tropical Environment
International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
Vol.5 , No. 1, Publication Date: Jan. 11, 2021, Page: 1-8
580 Views Since January 11, 2021, 168 Downloads Since Jan. 11, 2021
 
 
Authors
 
[1]    

Asinyetogha Hilkiah Igoni, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[2]    

Raphael Butler Jumbo, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[3]    

Davidson Dimabo Davis, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 
Abstract
 

The effect of weather changes on the yield of maize on a compacted sandy loam soil was investigated. The experiment was conducted in the teaching /research farm of the Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The research started during the wet (rainy) season in October, through the dry season in February. Five experimental field plots were used in the study. The plots were subjected to different levels of compaction by routine tillage operations and wheel traffic, using a Massey Ferguson (MF) 260 tractor and an MF90 disc plough, before the maize seeds were planted. Field data of crop emergence, growth rate and crop yield were taken at regular intervals within the different seasons. Analysis of the results showed an inverse-proportional relationship between maize yield and compaction during the wet season and a direct-proportional relationship during the dry season up to a certain optimal compaction level, when a shift was noticed. It was, therefore, found that different optimum levels of compaction for increased maize yield exist for the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Furthermore, the compacted soil within the optimum limit had better yield during the dry season. On the whole, although the fields with lower bulk densities performed better at the beginning of the study, they were out-performed by those of higher bulk densities by the end of the experiment. Thus, while the plots of bulk densities of 1.17 and 1.23 g/mm3 had better yield during the wet season, they were out-performed by the plots of bulk densities of 1.28 and 1.35 g/mm3 during the dry season.


Keywords
 

Maize Yield, Seasonal Variability, Soil Compaction, Sandy-Loam, Tillage


Reference
 
[01]    

DeJong-Hughes, J., Moncrief, J. F., Voorhees, W. B.; Swan, J. B. (2015). Soil Compaction: Causes, Effects and Control. University of Minnesota Extension Service. Retrieved from http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/tillage/soil-compaction/index.html on 2nd May, 2015.

[02]    

Hakansson, I.; R. C. Reeder. (1994). Subsoil compaction by vehicles with high axle load-extent, persistence and crop response. Soil Tillage Research, 29 (2–3): 277–304.

[03]    

Hillel, D. (1971). Soil and Water, Physical Principles and Processes. Academic Press, New York.

[04]    

Atwell B. J. (1993). Response of Roots to Mechanical Impedance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 33: 27-40.

[05]    

Campbell, D. J.; O‘Sullivan, M. F. (1991). The Cone Penetrometer in Relation to Trafficability, Compaction and Tillage. In: Smith, K. A. and Mullins, C. E. (Eds.), Soil Analysis: Physical Methods. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA, pp. 399-430.

[06]    

DeJong-Hughes, J. (2015). Tires. Traction and Compaction. University of Minnesota Extension Service. Retrieved from http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/tillage/tyres/traction/compaction/inde x.html. on 2nd May, 2015

[07]    

Martinez, C.; Lampurlanes, J. (2003). Soil bulk density and penetration resistance under different tillage and crop management systems and their relationship with barley root growth. Agronomy Journal, 95: 526-536.

[08]    

Bengough, A. G.; Mullins, C. E. (1990). Mechanical Impedance to Root Growth: A Review of Experimental Techniques and Root Growth Responses. Journal of Soil Science 41: 341-358.

[09]    

Wolkowski, R.; Lowery, B. (2008). Soil compaction: Causes, Concerns and Cures. University of Wisconsin Extension. Retrieved from www.kutarr.lib.kochi-tech.ac.jp. 14th August 2016.

[10]    

Al-Kaisi, M. (2019). Wet soils vulnerable to compaction. Integrated Crop Management. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach Retrieve from https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/wet-soils-vulnerable-compaction

[11]    

Al-Kaisi, M.; Licht, M. (2019). Soil moisture conditions - consideration for soil compaction. Integrated Crop Management. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Retrieved from https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/soil-moisture-conditions-consideration-soil-compaction

[12]    

McKenzie, R. H. (2018). Agricultural Soil Compaction: Causes and Management. Agri-Facts, Alberta Ag-Information Centre. Retrieved from https://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex13331/$file/510-1.pdf?OpenElement. on 7th February, 2019.

[13]    

Fayyaz-ui-Hassan, R. A.; Ghulam, Q. (2003). The influence of seasonal variations on yield components of sunflower. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 26 (2): 109 -113.

[14]    

Emman, E.; Nahed, N. M. (2018). Effect of seasonal variations on the yield of essential oil and antioxidant of Achillea Fragrantissima (Forssk) Sch. Bip. African Journal of Biotechnology, 17 (28), 892-897.

[15]    

Chen, G.; Weil, R. R. (2009). Root Growth and Yield of Maize as Affected by Soil Compaction and Cover Crops. Soil and Tillage Research, 117: 17– 27.

[16]    

Grzesiak, M. T. (2009). Impact of Soil Compaction on Root Architecture, Leaf Water Status, Gas Exchange, Growth of Maize and Triticale Seedlings. Agriculture and Technology 3: 10-16.

[17]    

Butler, A. N.; Centurion, J. F. (2004). Soil Compaction and Fertilization in Soybean Productivity. Science and Agriculture, 61: 626-631

[18]    

Ishag, M., Hassan, A., Saeed, M., Ibrahim, M.; Lal, R. (2001). Subsoil Compaction Effects on Crops in Punjab, Pakistan. Soil Tillage Research 28 (4): 57-65.

[19]    

Oussible, M., Crookstan, R. K.; Larson, W. E. (1992). Subsurface Compaction Effect on Root and Shoot Growth of Wheat. Journal of Agronomy, 84: 34-38.

[20]    

Lowery, B.; Schular, R. T. (1991). Temporal Effects of Subsoil Compaction on Soil Strength and Plant Growth. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55: 216-223.

[21]    

Raghavan, G. S. V., McKyes, E., Gendron, G., Borglum, B., & Le, H. H. (1978). Effects of Soil Compaction on Development and Yield of Corn (Maize). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 59, 435-443.

[22]    

Morris, D. T. (1975). Interrelationship among Soil Bulk Density, Soil Moisture and the Growth and Development of Corn. Master of Science Thesis, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

[23]    

Raghavan, G. S. V., McKyes, E., Beaulieu, B., Merineau, F., & Amir, I. (1976). Study of Traction and Compaction Problems on Eastern Canadian Agricultural Soils. Eng. Res. Serv. Rep., Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ont. (p. 292).

[24]    

Sohne, W. (1969). Agricultural engineering and terramechanics. Journal of Terramechanics, 6: 9-30.

[25]    

Trouse, A. C. and Humbert, R P (1961). Some effects of soil compaction on the development of sugar cane roots. Soil Sci., 91: 208-217.

[26]    

Yakubu, H. O. (2018). Particle (Soot) Pollution in Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria—Double Air Pollution Burden? Understanding and Tackling Potential Environmental Public Health Impacts. Environments, 5 (2): 1-22.

[27]    

Uko, E. D.; Tamunobereton-Ari, I. (2013). Variability of Climatic Parameters in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS), 4 (5): 727-730.

[28]    

Foth, H. D. (1990). Fundamentals of Soil Science (pp. 24-25 & 42-47). John Wiley and Sons, New York.

[29]    

American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE). (1984). Agricultural Machinery Data. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI-49085.

[30]    

Gomez, K. A.; Gomez, A. A. (1984). Statistical Procedure for Agricultural Research (p. 680). Wiley Press, New York.

[31]    

Duiker, S. W. (2004). Effects of Soil Compaction. Information and Communication Technologies in the College of Agricultural Sciences. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved from www.cas.psu.edu on 2nd May, 2015.

[32]    

Gupta, V. K.; Jangid, R. A. (2011). The Effect of Bulk Density on Emission Behavior of Soil at Microwave Frequencies. International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology, 10: 1-6.

[33]    

Rezaee, L, Shabanpour, M.; Davatgar, N. (2011). Estimating the Soil Water Retention Curve from Soil Particle Size Distribution using the Arya and Paris Model for Iranian Soils. Turk Journal of Agriculture 35: 649-657.

[34]    

Meek, B. D., Rechel, E. R., Carter, L. M.; DeTar, W. R. (1992). Bulk Density of a Sandy Loam Soil: Traffic, Tillage, and Irrigation-Method Effects. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56 (2): 562-565.

[35]    

Gaultney, L., G. W. Krutz, G. C. Steinhardt.; Liljedahl, J. B. (1980). Field and laboratory tests to determine effects of subsoil compaction on corn yield. ASAE Paper No. 80-1011, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. U.S.A

[36]    

Zlatko, W., Glinski, B. & Ball, B. C. (2009). Effects of Soil Compaction on Soil Aeration Properties. Soil Compaction in Crop Production, Elsevier Amsterdam, 2, 167-190.

[37]    

Lipiec, J., Hakansson, I., Tarkiewicz, S.; Kossowsk, J. (1991). Soil Physical Properties and Growth of Spring Barley as Related to the Degree of Compactness of Two Soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 19: 307-317.

[38]    

Odjugo, P. A. O. (2008). The impact of Tillage Systems on Soil Microclimate, Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot utilisima) in Midwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3: 225-233.

[39]    

The United States of America National Research Council (1993). Soil and water quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: National Academy Press (Publishers).

[40]    

Jacques R. T. (2014). Relationships between Soil Physical Properties and Crop Yields in Different Cropping Systems in Southern Cameroon. PhD Dissertation Submitted to Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim.

[41]    

Gysi, M., G., Klubertanz, L; Vulliet, T. (2000). Compaction under heavy wheel traffic in Switzerland. Soil Tillage Research, 56 (3): 117-129.

[42]    

Ohu, J. O., Mamman, E. & Muni, U. B. (2006). Influence of Vehicular Traffic on Air Permeability and Groundnut Production in a Semi-Arid Sandy Loam Soil. International Agrophysics, 20: 309 – 315.





 
  Join Us
 
  Join as Reviewer
 
  Join Editorial Board
 
share:
 
 
Submission
 
 
Membership