In this paper, we consider the problem of physical layer security in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs), where a Secondary User Transmitter (SU-Tx) sends confidential messages to a Secondary User Receiver (SU-Rx) on the same frequency band of a primary user (PU) in the presence of a multiple antennas Eavesdropper. Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (M-MIMO) technology is considered a key technology for next generation wireless systems, which provide higher rates and improve the reliability through diversity gains and spectrum efficiencies. We consider the effect of M-MIMO in improving the physical layer security in the presence of multiple antennas eavesdropper in CRNs, which has not yet been clarified. The Channel State Information (CSI) of the SU-Rx is assumed to be available at the transmitter side, whereas the CSI of the eavesdropper is assumed not known. It is found that M-MIMO is able to combat passive eavesdropping. Moreover, in order to investigate the effect of active eavesdropping on the secrecy performance of CRNs, the secrecy rate and the secrecy outage probability of this case is studied. The effects of some parameters such as the transmitted power at SU-Tx, interference temperature limit, and number of PUs are studied.
Cognitive Radio, Massive MIMO, Achievable Secrecy Rate, Secrecy Outage Probability
Federal Communications Commission, “Spectrum Policy Task Force Report,” FCC Document ET Docket no. 02-155, Nov. 2002.
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Cognitive Radio, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Std. no. 03-322, Dec. 2003.
J. Mitola, “Cognitive Radio: An Integrated Agent Architecture for Software Defined Radio,” Ph.D. Thesis, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, 2000.
S. Haykin, “Cognitive Radio: Brain-Empowered Wireless Communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 201–220, Feb. 2005.
P. J. Kolodzy, “Interference Temperatue: a Metric for Dynamic Spectrum Utilization,” International Journal of Network Management, vol. 16, pp. 103–113, Apr. 2006.
A. Wyner, “The Wire-tap Channel,” The Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1355–1387, Oct. 1975.
Y. Pei, Y.-C. Liang, K. C. Teh and K. H. Li, “Achieving Cognitive and Secure Transmissions Using Multiple Antennas,” IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, pp. 1–5, Sep. 2009.
Y. Pei, Y.-C. Liang, K. C. Teh and K. H. Li, “Secure Communication over MISO Cognitive Radio Channels,” IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communications, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1494–1502, Apr. 2010.
Y. Pei, Y. Liang, K. Chan and K. Li “Secure Communication in Multiantenna Cognitive Radio Networks With Imperfect Channel State Information,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 59, no. 4, Apr. 2011.
H. Sakran, M. Shokair, O. Nasr, S. El-Rabaie, and A. A. El-Azm,“Proposed relay selection scheme for physical layer security incognitive radio networks,” IET Communications, vol. 6, no. 16, pp. 2676–2687, 2012.
M. Z. I. Sarkar and T. Ratnarajah, “Enhancing security in the cognitive relay assisted co-existing radio systems with interferences,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC ’13), pp. 4729–4733, June 2013.
Y. Yu, L. Hu, H. Li, Y. Zhang, F. Wu, and J. Chu, “The Security of Physical Layer in Cognitive Radio Networks,” Journal of Communications, vol. 9, No. 12, December 2014.
L. Jiang and H. Tian, “Energy-Efficient Relay Selection Scheme for Physical Layer Security in Cognitive Radio Networks,” Hindawi Publishing Corporation, vol. 2015, 2015.
H. Zhang, T. Wang, L. Song, Z. Han, “Interference Improves PHY Security for Cognitive Radio Network,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 11, pp. 609 – 620, 2016.
T. Marzetta, “Noncooperative cellular wireless with unlimited numbers of base station antennas,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., pp. 3590–3600, 2010.
F. Rusek, D. Persson, B. K. Lau, et al. “Scaling up MIMO: opportunities and challenges with very large arrays,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., pp. 40–60, 2013.
J. Zhu, R. Schober, and V. K. Bhargava, “Linear precoding of data and artificial noise in secure massive MIMO systems,” IEEE Trans. on Wireless Commun., 15 (3), pp. 2245-2261, 2016.
L. Wang, K. K. Wong, M. Elkashlan, A. Nallanathan, and S. Lambotharan, “Secrecy and energy efficiency in massive MIMO aided heterogeneous C-RAN: A new look at interference”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 10 (8), pp. 1375-1389, 2016.
A. Al-nahari, “Physical layer security using massive multiple-input and multiple-output: passive and active eavesdroppers,” IET Communications, vol. 10, pp. 50–56, 2016.
X. Zhou, B. Maham, A., Hjørungnes, “Pilot contamination for active eavesdropping,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., vol. 11, pp. 903–907, 2012.